After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Plant Ecology.
Description: Definition: study of the distribution and abundance of plants and the factors Definition of species A Typological species-defined through reference to a Tags: ecology plant. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Plant Ecology 1 Plant Ecology Definition study of the distribution and abundance of plants and the factors biotic and environmental that controls this. Individual Population Community Ecosystem 2 Why study plant ecology?
Strawberry,grass tillers 10 Definitions Meristem- the growing point of the plant A region in which undifferentiated cells divide Genet- refers to genetically distinct individuals, i. This flexible growth arises from their modular construction Phenotypic plasticity- plants can change their growth form in response to environmental conditions 13 How are plants similar to animals Plants exhibit behavior 14 How are plants similar to animals Plants exhibit behavior Movement in response to some kind of change in the plants environment E.
Individuals exhibit different physiological tolerances Determine plant distribution in the environment 16 Individuals Why study individuals? Individuals have different competitive abilities Determine plant distribution in the environment 17 Individuals Why study individuals?
Soil nitrogen Soil pH Light intensity Frost free Potential habitat 25 Environmental Controls of species distributions Problems with this model Assumes that environmental factors limit plant distribution and ignores biotic factors such as competition Physiological tolerances may change when plants are grown together and are competing 26 Relative growth pH pH Pure culture Mixed culture Physiological tolerance can shift when plants are grown in competition 27 Environmental Controls of species distributions Physiological range-potential range of a species Physiological optimum-optimal conditions for a species Ecological range- observed range when grown under natural conditions Ecological optimum-observed optimum when grown under natural conditions 28 What is a species?
Definition of species A Typological species-defined through reference to a type specimen B Morphological species-defined through shared traits Flower structure,leaf shape, chromosome number, biochemical pathways, similarity of DNA sequences C Biological species-members of a group of populations that interbreed or potentially interbreed with each other and produce viable offspring.
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Title: History of Plant Ecology. Description: Plato recognized erosion during his time. Tags: alps ecology history orinoco plant the. Latest Highest Rated. Our land, compared with what it was, is like a skeleton of a body wasted by disease. The plump soft parts have vanished, and all that remains is the bare carcass. Aristotle believed that nature was provident extinction could not occur Theophrastus, considered the father of Botany, determined that some plants were found in certain regions and not others plant geography In 70 BC, Lucretius wrote about succession in his book On the Nature of Things.
Plant Geography, published in Five-volume encyclopedia Kosmos was his last 4 Baron von Humboldt Attributed vegetation zonation in the tropics to Temperature Humidity Atmospheric Pressure! Electrical Charge! Visited President Thomas Jefferson in he encouraged support of the Lewis and Clark Expedition later, Jefferson explored the Alps and described vegetation zones there von Humboldts work was an inspiration for Charles Darwin, but ironically Humboldt died inthe year the Origin of Species was published One of von Humboldts famous ideas In the great chain of causes and effects, no thing and no activity should be regarded in isolation.
Emphasized importance of soils, moisture, and temperature Introduced terms like halophytes, hydrophytes, xerophytes, and mesophytes 7 Henry Cowles taught the first ecology course at the University of Chicago in used Warmings book Worked on succession on the nearby sand dunes of Lake Michigan recognized dynamic nature of vegetation Many students of Cowles helped in the development of the Chicago school of ecology Arthur Tansley taught first ecology course in England inalso used Warmings book Later, inTansley coined the word ecosystem.
Whittaker Helped develop ordination techniques, which quantitatively showed gradual changes in species distributions With John Curtis, provided support for Gleasons ideas of individualistic responses of species to environment 11 Raymond Lindeman Studied aquatic ecosystems while a graduate student at the University of Minnesota Developed the trophic-dynamic concept, by which organisms are classified according to how they obtain, use, and pass on energy to the next trophic level Had trouble getting the paper published, but finally it was published in after his death and it became very influential 12 Eugene P.
Odum, Called "the father of modern ecology," popularized the word ecosystem by making it the organizing concept in his Fundamentals of Ecology translated into 12 languages Chapters on energy flow, nutrient cycling, population dynamics, and ecosystem development With his brother, the ecologist Howard T.
Odum, powerfully influenced the development of ecosystem ecology symbiosis and biological diversity promotes stability. Stability in ecosystems increases with increasing scale parts are less stable than wholes. Smaller ecosystem components are less stable than larger components corollary to 3. Natural selection may occur at more than one level another corollary to 3. Two kinds of natural selection one driven by biota, which leads to competition one driven by environment, which leads to mutualism.
Competition may lead to diversity rather than to extinction. Evolution of mutualism increases as resources become scarce. Organisms have modified the environment, making Earth more habitable. Biodiversity studies should range over genetic to landscape scales. Ecosystem development autogenic succession occurs in two phases pioneer stages are stochastic later stages are more organized. Energy is required to maintain energy flow and mass nutrient cycles.
Sustainable ecosystem management is urgent. Transitions from one state to another require energy expenditure.
If humans are parasitic on our Earth host, we must reduce our virulence.Select your topic…. Hydathodes — Structure and Functions Notes. Difference between Stomata and Hydathodes. Difference between Collateral and Bicollateral Vascular Bundles.
Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma. Difference between Xylem and Phloem. Difference between Sieve Tubes and Sieve Cells. Difference between Vessels and Tracheids. Meristematic Tissue: Classification Key Points. Difference between Primary and Secondary Meristem. Difference between Fascicular and Interfascicular Cambium.
Difference between Shoot Apex and Root Apex.
Difference between Syndetocheilic and Haplocheilic Stomata. Difference Flower and Vegetative Shoot. Anatomical Difference between Stem Shoot and Root. Aristolochia: Anomalous Secondary Thickening. Mirabilis Nyctaginaceae : Anomalous Secondary Thickening. Dracaena Stem: Anomalous Secondary Thickening. Nodal Anatomy of Angiosperms. Difference between Dicot Leaf and Monocot Leaf.
History of Plant Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Stem. Difference Between Protoxylem and Metaxylem. Difference Between Protophloem and Metaphloem. Difference between Phellem and Phelloderm.
Difference between Hardwood and Softwood. Difference between Heartwood and Sapwood. Role of Plant Anatomy in Systematics Taxonomy. Biostatistics Chemistry Physics.Plant demographic techniques have advanced quickly since the s, and researchers can now apply them to new questions. Population growth rates, which are often studied by demographers, are especially important for populations that are small or fragmented.
The metapopulation concept, originally developed for animals, can be applied to plant populations that are connected by gene flow but that are also subject to rapid extinction by disturbance. Interactions with animals often impact how a population grows or declines over time. For example, herbivores can depress population growth rates, and pollinators and dispersers of seeds are crucial in determining individual plant fitness.
These interactions can be affected by the mating systems of plants. For example, inbred individuals may suffer greater negative impacts of herbivory than outcrossed individuals, and outcrossed individuals may produce larger or more symmetric flowers, leading to more efficient pollination.
All of these interactions can affect local adaptation in plants as a consequence of natural selection. Harper was one of the early foundational works in plant population ecology. This work organized and started the modern study of plant populations, and its influence is enormous. Although many of the methods that Harper mentioned are outdated, the conceptual issues he addressed are still being investigated.
Solbrig, et al. Dirzo and Sarukhan showed the wide range of the field. Gurevitch, et al. Silvertown and Charlesworth is one of the most important works in the field that has extensive sections on population dynamics, intraspecific interactions, and evolutionary topics. For a text on important field and analytical methods, one needs to read Gibsonwhich provides in-depth information on all of the techniques used in the 21st century.
Cheplick is a must read for anyone interested in plant populations, with important sections on experimental methods and plant-animal and plant-microbe interactions. Cheplick, Gregory P. Approaches to plant evolutionary ecology.
New York: Oxford Univ. A concise and important work that considers natural selection in plants, experimental approaches to studying plant populations, and interactions between plants and animals, microbes, and pollinators.
Dirzo, Rodolfo, and Jose Sarukhan, eds. Perspectives on plant population ecology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. An influential edited volume with a good listing of the types of topics included in the discipline. Gibson, David J. Methods in comparative plant population ecology2d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. A useful and influential text on the latest analytical and field methods in plant population ecology. In particular, Gibson provides in-depth coverage on all of the field methods.
Gurevitch, Jessica, Samuel M. Scheiner, and Gordon A.Domace serije spisak
The ecology of plants2d ed. An important text suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Particularly impressive for its clear text and insightful graphics. Harper, John L. Population biology of plants. New York: Academic Press. Probably the most important work in the field. Harper clearly explains the uses of demographic techniques and foreshadows many of the current topics being investigated today.Lecture Notes: Set No.
Name a plant! Duckweed, geranium, apple tree, oak tree, dandelion, algae, redwood tree, carrot, etc. Lots of biodiversity!
Plants come in different shapes, sizes. Some are short-lived, others live for hundreds of years. Plants have adapted to a wide variety of habitats, and methods of reproducing and dispersing themselves. According to E. Wilson in his book, "The Diversity of Life" there are aboutspecies of higher plants i.
There are about 26, species of algae. Sedentary Plants don't move about.
Plant Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Modular construction - repeating units due to localized areas of growth meristems ; plants grow at their tips and outward in girth. Different modules perform specific functions Roots - anchorage and absorption of water and dissolved nutrients. Leaves - absorption of light energy and atmospheric gases carbon dioxide. Reproductive structures; male, female, or both sexes e.
Structures that hold spores or seeds as they mature e. Stem - support leaves and reproductive structures, and the link between these modules and the root system.
Maximize surface area for absorption of gas, light, nutrients and water. Cellular level i. Role of plants in the biosphere. Of the three producers, decomposers, and consumerswhich two are essential to life on earth? Least significant are the consumers, although these can be important ecologically for specific plants e.
Resupply oxygen to atmosphere 11 year supply on earth. Maintain the climate deforestation is of concern.
List the plant and how it was used by yourself. List a particular usage only once.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Physiological Ecology.
Description: study of species' needs and tolerances that determine their distribution and abundance Conifer forests reflect only about Tags: ecology physiological study time. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Physiological Ecology 1 Physiological Ecology 2 Outline Introduction to Ecology Evolution and Natural Selection Physiological Ecology Behavioural Ecology 3 Physiological Ecology study of species needs and tolerances that determine their distribution and abundance species need lots of things e.
CH2O O2 16 Chlorophyll, a necessary pigment 17 Pigments absorb light energy Pigments absorb light energy between ? Pigments cannot absorb light in the green wavelength region 19 The Green Gap 20 Why are some plants not green? Chlorophyll is missing from some cells, making the reflectance of other pigments visible 21 Fall colour the production of chlorophyll requires sunlight and warm temperatures in many plants, chlorophyll production stops in fall and other pigments become visible 22 Why is chlorophyll necessary?
Other pigments pass on the energy they absorb to a chlorophyll molecule When chlorophyll is in an energized state, it is able to turn light energy into chemical bond energy This chemical bond energy passes through a number of different molecules and then rests within a carbohydrate glucose molecule 23 Variations in photosynthesis C3 photosynthesis C4 photosynthesis CAM photosynthesis 24 CO2 must enter though stomata stomata sing.
C3 grasses yellow remain dominant in cool temperate grasslands because C4 grasses are less productive at low temperatures. Carnivorous plants capture and digest animal prey They are able to grow without animal prey, albeit more slowly spp. Broadleaf forests reflect up to 20 of visible radiation.
Conifer forests reflect only about 5. Ecosystems with low leaf area e. Conifer forests with very high leaf area index can absorb almost 95 or more of the incident light 45 Coniferous versus deciduous forest 46 Efficiency of photosynthesis Of the energy that is actually absorbed by chloroplasts, at best about 20 is converted into sugars 47 Plant biomass a fraction of total energy Of the solar energy that is converted into organic molecules in photosynthesis, about is lost in the processes of respiration 48 Primary productivity Gross Primary Productivity GPP total amount of photosynthetic energy captured in a given period of time.
Net Primary Productivity NPP the amount of plant biomass energy after cell respiration has occurred in plant tissues. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.
And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use PowerShow. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free.
Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. That's all free as well! For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings.John R. What regulates the size and distribution of plant populations? What determines whether a population of plants will increase in size or decline?
What allows some species to become aggressive invaders of exotic habitats, and what prevents this from occurring?
When do individuals from different species exclude each other from a community by competition, and when do their interactions facilitate coexistence? These are just a few of the questions that arise when one contemplates the ebb and flow of plants across our landscapes, the magnificent diversity one finds in some habitats, or the tendency of one species to exclude all others in habitats that would appear to be very similar.
This Special Issue brings together 15 articles presenting recent research bearing on these and other questions that have become, or continue to be, hot topics in the study of plant populations.
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The topics covered in this issue range from the epigenetic inheritance of characters that influence defence traits to the abiotic factors and biotic interactions that contribute to community assembly and the coexistence of plant species.
Several of the studies consider the ecology and evolution of invasive species. Others address questions about the evolutionary ecology of local adaptation and differentiation in life-history traits, including differentiation between the sexes of dioecious plants.
With this breadth, it is perhaps not sensible to look for themes that unite all the papers — beyond the common concern with plant populations. Nevertheless, one theme does echo hither and thither between the contributions made: that ecological interactions take place between organisms that vary genetically, and that the extent of genetic, indeed phylogenetic, divergence between interacting populations can matter.
The integration of a formal phylogenetic perspective into comparative functional ecology represented an important step in the field of plant ecology Harvey and Pagel, ; Silvertown et al. The point is a simple one: traits may be associated among species either because they are functionally related, or simply because traits are inherited together from common ancestors or both. It is now accepted that failure to account for the latter possibility is tantamount to pseudoreplication, because species are not independent units, and can lead to spurious conclusions about function.Raspberry pi nvr viewer
In phylogenetically corrected analyses, trait associations between more closely related species are effectively downplayed in relation to those found between more distantly related species Felsenstein, ; Grafen, ; Harvey and Pagel, But how distant is distant, in an absolute sense? In this Special Issue, two papers incorporate a phylogenetic perspective into their analyses, the second of which considers this question of phylogenetic distance.
But first, in a somewhat provocative paper, Herben et al. Intriguingly, they find a statistically significant link between genome size and abundance for annual plants, but what could this mean? Most likely, the link is indirect, probably caused by association with other traits that have a more direct influence on species abundance.
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